Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that covers everything related to eye care from the anatomy, physiology and associated diseases and treatments.
Ophthalmologists are specialist in medical and surgical eye disease with M.D. or D.O. degree in medicine, plus an additional four years of residency. Ophthalmologists provide a broad range of clinical care, from contact lenses and corrective glasses to LASIK (Laser Eye Surgery) and corneal transplants.
Some ophthalmologists have additional fellowships in a particular specialty of eye pathology. These commonly include: Anterior segment surgery, which is concerned with the front third of the eye which includes many structures, including the iris, the cornea and the lens. Retinal ophthalmology covers the full range of retinal medicine and procedures, from laser treatment to full invasive surgery. Strabismus ophthalmology, also called crossed eyes, where eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The discipline of neuro-ophthalmology deals with nervous system related visual problems, including optic neuritis and optic neuropathy. Ocular oncology deals with tumors of the eye and surrounding tissue, including eyebrows and eyelids. Oculoplastic surgery (also known as oculoplastic) deals with a range of surgical procedures to do with the eye socket, eyelids, tear ducts and face.